Click here to go directly to CIB Working Commission 14: Fire  -  USA

Click here to go directly to the National Fire Protection Association  -  USA

Sustainable Design International Limited

Click here to go directly to European Safety, Reliability and Data Association (ESReDA)  -  Scotland

Click here to go directly to the European Committe for Standardization -  Belgium

Click here to go directly to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission

Click here to go directly to the European Environment Agency  -  Denmark

Click here to go directly to the International Council on Monuments and Sites  -  France

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

   Back to Top

Fire?Resistance Performance

( Extended version of C J Walsh's contribution to the initial chapters of
CIB Report 269 - October 2001 )


1.???????? Introduction

Many? people,? directly? or? indirectly? involved? in? the? processes? of? design,? construction / de-construction,? or? management? of? buildings,? view? compliance? with? fire? safety? related? legislation? merely? as? an? awkward? problem? to? be? overcome,? with? minimum? cost? and? effort.??? Seldom? is? it? understood? that? the? fire? safety? objectives? which? underpin? those? provisions? are? limited? in? scope.??? In? the? case? of? current? national? legislation? in? the? European? Union,? for? example,? the? safety? of? a? building's? able-bodied? occupants? is? the? primary? concern ;?? not? only? is? safety? of? people? with? disabilities? inadequately? treated,? but? there? is? an? absence? of? any? coherent? technical? guidance? to? which? building? designers? can? make? reference.??? Typically,? also,? the? safety? of? firefighters? and? the? protection? of? property? are? merely? given? token? consideration.??? And? even? if? comprehensive? legislation? existed? at? national? level,? it? may? not? be? effectively? monitored? or? controlled? on? the? ground,? due? to? lack? of? political? will,? financial? resources,? or? any? number? of? other? reasons.?

The? following? text? presents? a? practical? introduction? to? fire? resistance? performance? in? buildings? -? in? a? format? which? is? intended? to? appeal? not? only? to? experts,? specialists,? practitioners,? regulators? and? controllers? in? the? fire? community? but,? additionally,? to? other? disciplines? working? in? the? mainstream? building? sector.?

Except? where? necessary,? every? attempt? has? been? made? in? the? text? to? ensure? that? terminology ?and? references? to? legislative? provisions? are? generic,? and? not? specific? to? any? individual? country,? its? legal? system,? or? national? body? of? standards.??? For? this? reason,? its? contents? constitute? a? common? basis? for? discussing? principles? and? defining? criteria? of? fire? resistance? performance? which? are? universally? applicable? and? relevant? at? all? stages? in? the? life? cycle? of? a? building,? whatever? the? nature? or? combination? of? materials? and? products? used.?


2.???????? What? is? a? Practical  Fire ?Engineering? Approach ?

To? examine,? and? think? through,? problems? associated? with? aspects? of? fire? safety? and? protection? in? buildings? -? in? this? case,? fire? resistance? performance? -? and? to? base? solutions? on? principles? of? reason,? common? sense,? science,? mainstream? engineering,? practicability? and? cost-effectiveness.?

The? benefits? offered? by? such? an? approach? include? ........?

  • the? provision? of? better,? and? more? reliable,? fire ?safety? and? protection? in? buildings ;?

  • more? cost-effective? safety? and? protection? measures,? and? more? options? with? regard? to? their? choice? and? specification ;?

  • better? communication? with? other? disciplines? involved? in? the? construction? sector.?

From? the? outset? of? this? approach,? it? must? be? clearly? understood? that? reality,? or? the? realistic? end? condition,? is? a? 'real'? fire? in? a? 'real'? building? which? is? occupied? by? 'real'? people,? a? regular? percentage? of? whom? will? be? limited? in? the? range? of? their? abilities,? i.e.? disabled,? at? the? time? of? any? fire? incident.?

Continuous? study? and? analysis,? therefore,? of? accurate? fire? investigation? reports? should? be? a? routine? practice? in? all? areas? of? the? professional? discipline? of? fire? safety? design / engineering.?

3.???????? Some? Fire? Related? Issues? in? a? Sustainable? 'Built? Environment'

Modern? architecture? has? evolved? dramatically? since? the? early? 1920's.??? Buildings? are? no? longer? designed? as? a? series? of? rooms? connected? by? a? circulation? route.??? Now? instead,? a? large? open? space? is? a? regular? feature? and,? in? many? instances,? spaces? will? be? linked? vertically? and/or? horizontally? through? a? major? extent? of? the? building.??? Loadbearing? construction,? i.e.? structure,? is? also? differentiated? from? non-loadbearing? construction,? i.e.? fabric,? to? a? far? greater? degree.??? Fire? safety? design? and? engineering? must? keep? pace? with? these? developments.?


Figure 1? German? Pavilion? at? the? 1929? World? Exhibition? in? Barcelona.? Mies van der Rohe,? Architect.
Part? of? the? terrace? showing? the? independence? and? separate? treatment? of? the? cruciform? loadbearing? columns? and? the? non-loadbearing? walls.

?????????????? ? ?????????????

The? traditional? view? of? 'fire? resistance'? as? being? static,? robust? and? passive? must,? therefore,? not? only? be? extended? to? consider? a? complementary? relationship? with? 'active'? fire? protection? measures ,? it? must? be? stretched? to? embrace? the? concept? of? 'non-construction'?  [ see? definition? of? Sterile? Area (Fire)? in? Appendix? I? to? this? text ].?

With? a? growing? body? of? environmental? legislation,? at? European,? regional? and? local? levels? throughout? the? European? Union,? fire? safety? design? must? begin? to? address? some? of? the? following? issues,? which? relate? directly? to? fire? protection? in? buildings? ........?

  • requirements? for? far? higher? levels? of? reliable? fire? performance? in? order? to? reduce? and? control? adverse? impacts? on? the? environment? and? human? health? caused? by? fire ? ( see? the? more? developed? definition? of? Compartmentation? in? Appendix? I ) ;?

  • the? specification? of? environment-friendly? products,? components? and? building? assemblies,? etc. ;?

  • life? cycle? assessment / analysis / appraisal? of? specified? fire? protection? measures.?

Finally,? an? important? new? area? of? building? research? and? development? is? Sustainable? Construction? -? the? response,? in? built? form,? to? the? concept? of? 'sustainable? development'.??? This? concept,? i.e.? 'development? which? meets? the? needs? of? the? present? without? compromising? the? ability? of? future? generations? to? meet? their? own? needs',? has? recently? been? incorporated? in? the? primary? legislation? of? the? European? Union ( 1997 Amsterdam? Treaty ) .???? Fire? safety? design? has? an? important? contribution? to? make? to? this? global? goal? -? by? helping? to? preserve? the? 'natural? environment'? and,? as? a? core? value,? by? adopting? a? 'person-centred'? approach? to? fire? safety? in? the? 'built? environment'? and? effectively? protecting? human? health.?

See? the ??Fundamental? Matrix ??of? sustainability? performance? indicators.?

See? examples? of? completed? ?Indicators ,? which? are? directly? related? to? this? text.?

The? purpose? of? Construction? Related? Sustainability? Performance? Indicators? is? to? commence,? in? earnest,? the? practical? task? of? implementing? a? sustainable? approach? to? the? future? development? and? modification? of? the? 'built? environment'.??? The? Kyoto? Protocol? to? the? United? Nations? Framework? Convention? on? Climate? Change? has? made? this? a? short? term? legal? imperative? for? every? Member? State? of? the? E.U.?


4.???????? Fire? Safety? Design

Aware? of? the? limited? safety? objectives? in? building? legislation,? therefore,? and? following? careful? examination? of? the? nature? and? precise? location? of? a? particular? construction? project,? a? competent? person,? i.e.? a? fire? engineer,? should? start? by? identifying,? in? consultation? with? the? client / developer? and? other? members? of? the? design? team,? a? project? specific? range? of? 'indicated'? fire? safety? objectives .??? This? must? come? before? the? development? of? any? fire? safety? strategy.?

The? following? objectives? cover? a? wide? spectrum? of? concerns,? and? are? suggested? as? a? guide :?

(i)  protection? of? the? health? and? safety? of? all? building? users,? including? people? with? disabilities,? visitors? to? the? building? who? may? be? unfamiliar? with? its? layout,? and? contractors? or? product / service? suppliers? temporarily? engaged? in? work,? or? business? transactions,? on? the? premises ;?
(ii) protection? of? property,? including? the? building,? its? contents,? and? adjoining? or? adjacent? properties,? from? loss? or? damage ;
(iii) protection? of? the? health? and? safety? of? rescue? teams? and? firefighters ;?
(iv) the? buildability? of? necessary? re-construction? after? a? fire ;?
(v) protection? of? the? 'natural? environment'? from? adverse? or? harmful? impacts ;?
(vi) sustainability? of? the? 'built? environment'? -? including? the? proper? selection? and? life? cycle? assessment? ( see? EN ISO 14040 )? of? fire? safety? related? materials,? products,? components,? systems,? etc.,? fixed,? installed? or? incorporated? in? the? building.?

It? is ?only? after? the? objectives? have? been? clearly? stated,? that? a? cost-effective? fire? safety? strategy? may? be? designed? which? will? effectively? answer? the? requirements? of? the? client's? brief? and? the? project? performance? specification.? ??Once? completed,? this? strategy? becomes? the? basis? for? a? fire? defence? plan.?

A? fire? defence? plan? elaborates,? usually? in? the? form? of? a? manual? containing? drawings? and? text,? the? particular? fire? safety? strategy? which? has? been? adopted? for? a? specific? building.??? Under? no? circumstances? should? a? fire? defence? plan? contain? an? incomplete? strategy,? or? more? than? one? strategy.??? See? also? ISO 6790 :? ' Graphical? symbols? for? fire? protection? plans '.?

The ?style? and? presentation? of? a? fire? defence? plan? should? be? simple,? clear,? direct? and? precise ;?? and? it? should? contain,? at? least,? the? following? four? sections? ........?

( a ) a? statement? of? design? intent,? specifying? the? fire? safety? objectives? to? be? attained ;
( b ) a? listing? of? the? fire? protection? related? products,? materials,? assemblies? and? systems to? be? used? in? the? building ;?
( c ) proper? substantiation? of? stated? 'performance? in? use'? of? the ?items? listed? in? ( b )? above? ;
( d ) an? explanation? of? the? fire? safety? strategy,? indicating? how? the? various  listed? items? are to? be? used,? their? interaction? with? each? other? and? with? the? building.

5.???????? A? New? Language? of? Protection? from? Fire?

With? rising? standards? of? public? health? protection,? and? the? advent? of? larger? and? more? complex? building? types,? it? has? become? clear? that? the? old,? prescriptive? applications? of? fire? safety? design? 'rules? of? thumb'? are? inadequate.??? However,? to? create? the? innovative? concepts? which? are? necessary? to? develop? a? more? rational? approach? to? fire? safety? design? and? engineering,? standard? terminology? must? be? re-examined? in? order? to? clarify? and? make? more? immediate? its? meaning,? e.g.??? ........? ???????????????

Fire? Resistance : The? inherent? capability? of? a? building? assembly,? or? an element? of?construction,? to? resist? the? passage? of? heat, smoke? and? flame? for a specified time during? a? fire.

????????????? ?

'Real'? people? and? their? activities? in? buildings? are? very? important.??? It? is? no? longer? the? case? that? all? building? occupants? must / should / can? be? evacuated? in? 21/2 minutes .??? In? the? different? situations? of? hospitals? and? very? large? complex? building? types,? for? example,? but? also? security? establishments,? certain? research? laboratories,? and? organizations? committed? to? 'service? quality',? e.g.? hotels? -? it? is? neither? practicable,? nor? desirable,? that? a? building? be? entirely? evacuated? at? once.??? Building? occupants? must? be? able? to? move? confidently,? or? be? moved,? to?? 'places? of? relative? safety' ,? or? they? may? have? to? be? fully? protected? in? place.??? Higher,? more? reliable? levels? of? fire? performance? are? demanded.?


6.???????? Structural Design for Fire

As? our? understanding? of? fire? behaviour? in? 'real'? buildings? grows,? greater? attention? is? being? paid? to? structural? reliability,? and? the? design? of? structural? systems? for? performance? in? fire? conditions? ........? ???????????????

Structural? Reliability :
(ISO 2394)
The? ability? of? a? structural? system? to? fulfil? its? designpurpose,? for? some? specified? time,? under? the? actual environmental? conditions? encountered? in? a? building.?

In? addition,? particular? focus? is? being? drawn? to? the? complex? relationship? between? structure? and? non-structural? infill,? or? fabric,? which? typically? in? modern? buildings? is? lightweight? and? non-loadbearing.??? Under ?fire? conditions,? this? relationship? becomes? an? intense? interaction? which? impacts? on? the? efficient? fire? performance,? i.e.? serviceability,? of? both.








Figure 2????? The? complex? relationship? between? Structure? and? Fabric? in? a? fire? situation? must? be? studied? and? researched.????? See? a? more? developed? sketch? drawing.?

In? general? terms,? the? reliability? of? a? building? structure,? i.e.? the? loadbearing? construction,? is? its? ability? to? fulfil? its? architectural? design? purpose? for? some? specified? time? under? the? actual? environmental? conditions? encountered? in? the? building.??? The? fire? performance? of? a? whole? structure,? or? part? of? it?? -?? the? principal? concern? of? this? text? -? may? be? more? precisely? specified? in? engineering? terms? by? reference? to? a? defined? set? of? limit? states? beyond? which? the? structure? no? longer? satisfies? the? project's? architectural? and? fire? safety? design? requirements.?

Those? limit? states? may? be? divided? into? the? following? two? categories :-?

(a) ultimate? limit? states,? which? in? structural? design? for? ambient? conditions? correspond? to? maximum? load-bearing? capacity? but,? typically,? in? design? for? fire? still? correspond ?to? the? 'near-maximum'? loadbearing? capacity? intended? to? avoid? damage? to? laboratory? furnaces? caused? by? test? specimen? collapse? -? see? definition? of? horizontal? loadbearing? element? 'failure'? in? a? sample? test? standard,? e.g.? BS 476 : Part 20? ( Clause? 10.2.3 )? ........


and? an? interesting? note? in? Appendix A,? Paragraph 10,? of? the? same? standard? concerning
loadbearing? vertical? elements? ........?

(b) serviceability? limit? states,? which? in? 'ambient'? design? correspond? to? criteria? governing? function? related? use? but,? unfortunately,? in? design? for? fire? are? not? yet? properly? recognized.?


Ultimate? limit? states? in? fire? engineering? should? instead? be? equally? understood? to? mean,? for? example? ........?

  • rupture? of? critical? sections? of? the? structure? caused? by? exceeding? the? ultimate? strength? (in? some? cases? reduced? by? repeated? loading) ,? or? the? ultimate? deformation? of? the? material ;?

  • transformation? of? the ?structure? into? a? mechanism? (collapse) ;
  • loss? of? stability? (buckling,? etc.) .?


Serviceability? limit? states? in? fire? engineering,? which? are? of? more? immediate? and? direct? relevance? to? the? protection? of? both? human? health? and? property,? and? necessary? re-construction? after? a? fire,? would? correspond? to,? for? example? ........?

  • deformations? which? affect? the? efficient? use,? i.e.? the? fire? performance,? or? appearance? of? structural? or? non-structural? elements ;

  • local? damage? (including? spalling? and? cracking)? which? reduces? the? durability? of? a? structure? or? affects? the? efficiency? or? appearance? of? structural? or? non-structural? elements.?


To? control? fire? serviceability? limit? states? by? design,? therefore,? it? is? necessary? to? use? one? or? more? constraints? which? describe? acceptable? deformations? (+/-deflection,? expansion,? distortion,? etc.) ,? accelerations,? crack? widths,? spalling,? etc.?????See? some? comments? and? questions.?

Now? refer? back? to? the? definition? of? 'fire? resistance'? in? B.S. 476 : Part 20? ........?????

Fire? Resistance : The? ability? of? an? element? of? building? construction to? withstand? exposure? to? a? standard? temperature/time and? pressure? regime? without? loss? of? its? fire? separating function? or? loadbearing? function? or? both? for? a? given? time.?

This? definition? does? not? attempt? to? establish? a? relationship? with? 'real'? fire? behaviour? in? a? 'real'? building.??? A? standard? fire? test,? on? the? other? hand,? involving? exposure? of? a? test? specimen? or? prototype? to? 'test? fire'? conditions,? will? give? only? a? limited? indication? of :-?

(i) the? likely? performance? of? a? particular? product,? material? or? component? when? exposed? to? 'real? fire'? conditions ;?
(ii) the? suitability? of? a? product,? material? or? component? for? a? particular? end? use.?

Furthermore,? there? is? a? fundamental? mismatch? here? between? the ?concepts? of?? fire? separation? ........

' ensuring? that? a? fire,? or? any? of? its? constituent? parts,? i.e.? heat,? smoke? or? flame,
cannot? move? or? spread? from? Point? A? in? a? building? to? Point? B '?

and?? structural? reliability ?in? fire ,? which? has? already? been? defined ;?? both? concepts? are? not? even? complementary.??? A? single? definition? cannot? handle? this? overload ;?? it? makes? no? sense? and,? as? a? result,? its? meaning? for? the? everyday? practitioner? in? the? building? industry? is? obscured? and? lost.?

7.???????? Reliability? of? Fire? Performance? in? Buildings

An? issue? which? is? becoming? increasingly? critical,? in? striving? to? rationalize,? analyse? (as? distinct? from? assess),? improve? and ?optimize? fire? performance? in? buildings,? is? that? of? 'reliability.??? Can? we? confidently? depend? on? an? element? of? construction,? an? installed? product,? or? a? building? system? to? perform? as? expected? whenever? a? fire? might? occur? -? at? any? stage? in? the? life? cycle? of? that? building ????? Design,? construction? workmanship,? maintenance,? 'real'? intended? use,? and? an? economically? reasonable? working? life? for? the? building,? are? important? factors? which? must? be? considered? by? the? fire? safety? designer? as? a? member? of? a? project's? design? and? construction? teams.?

The? following? are? some? variables? which? influence? performance? reliability,? and? should? be? taken? into? account? by? a? competent? person? in? the? detailed? development? of? a? fire? safety? strategy :?

(i) Precision? of? fire? test? methods?? -?? is? a? fire? performance? rating? of?? '60 minutes'?? in? one? test? laboratory? equivalent? to? a? similar? rating? in? another? laboratory ??
(ii) Installation? alterations? on? site.??? Have? any? changes? been? made? to? a? product,? as? originally? fire? tested ????? Have? any? of? the? fixing? details? been? altered ????? Have? any? changes? been? made? on? site? in? order? to? ensure? a? proper? fit ????? If? assemblies? do? not? fit,? how? have? resulting? larger? gaps? and? clearances? been? handled? by? the? building? contractor ?
(iii) Workmanship?? -?? is? it? good,? bad? or? ugly ????? Has? it? been? competently? supervised,? or? not ??
(iv) Has? there? been? any? interference? with? an? installed? product?? -?? by? other? trades? at? later? stages? in? the? construction? process ?
(v) Servicing? and? maintenance?? -?? will? any? be? carried? out,? by? somebody? competent? to? do? so ?
(vi) What? information? do? you? have? about? the? management? system,? personnel,? and? reporting? relationships? in? a? building ????? Are? they? efficient / competent / effective ?
(vii) Improper? use? and? abuse? by? the? building's? occupants?? -?? for? example,? would? you? ever? expect? to? find? a? situation? like? that? shown? below ??



Figure 3 'Reliability'? of? a? Fire? Resisting? Doorset ??
  See ?more? figures? [ a ]? and? [ c ] .


??????????????? ?

8.???????? Proper? Substantiation? of? Fire? 'Performance? in? Use'

Within? the? European? Union,? products,? components,? fittings,? items? of? equipment,? systems,? etc.,? used? in? the? construction? of? buildings? must? be? shown? to? be? 'fit? for? their? intended? use' ,? at? the? location? and? under? the? conditions? in? which? they? are? to? be? used? ........?

This? requirement? is? expressed? in? the? Building? Regulations? for? England? and? Wales,? as? Regulation 7 :-?

Figure 4????? Regulation 7? of? the? Building? Regulations? for? England? and? Wales.?


Appendix A? of? Approved? Document? B? for? England? and? Wales? provides? additional? guidance? with? regard? to? the? performance? of? fire? protection? related? products,? components,? systems,? etc.??? This? information? must? be? read? as? being? related,? and? subordinate,? to? Regulation 7.??? Once? the? boundary? of? application? of? a? Fire? Test? Report? is? exceeded,? however,? Appendix A? is? not? clear? what? an? 'Assessment'? is,? or? who? exactly? is? the? 'competent? person'? to? produce? such? documentation.?

See? some ??Technical? Guidance? Notes ,? which? do? provide? answers.?



Appendix? I - Fire Resistance Performance in Buildings

Fire? Safety? &? Protection? in? Buildings

(See Updated Vocabularies - October 2001)

Adaptability : The? extent? to? which? a? building,? or? a? building? component,? is? designed? when? new,? or? capable? of? being? easily? modified? at? any later? stage,? to? meet? the? changing? living? or? working? needs? of? the broad? average? of? potential? occupants,? who? may? be? disabled? or able-bodied.

Assembly : An? aggregation? of? components? arranged? together? for? a? specific purpose.?

Buffer? Zone : The? compartments? and/or? spaces? immediately? adjoining? the? fire compartment? in? a? building.?

Buildability :
The? extent? to? which? the? design? of? a? building? facilitates? ease? of? construction,? subject? to? the? overall? requirements? for? the? completed building.?

Built? Environment : Anywhere? there? is,? or? has? been,? an? intrusion? or? intervention? by? a? human? being? in? the? natural? environment.?

Compartmentation :?

The? division? of? a? building? into? fire-tight? compartments,? by? fire resisting? elements? of construction,?? in? order? ...

  • to? contain? an? outbreak? of? fire ;
  • to? prevent? damage? internally? to? other? adjoining? compartments?and/or? building? spaces ;?
  • to? prevent? harm? externally? to? the? 'natural? environment' ;
  • to? protect? a? compartment? interior? from? external? fire? attack.?

Component :
(ISO 1791)

A? building? product,? formed? as? a? distinct? unit,? having? specified sizes? in? three? dimensions.

The? term??component?? includes? items? of? equipment,? fixtures, fittings,? and? fitted? furniture.?

Construction? Works :
(EU Directive 89/106/EEC)

Any? building? or? civil? engineering? works.?

Cool? Flame : Flame? produced? by? certain? fuel? substances,? e.g.? higher? hydrocarbons,? in? an? initial? stage? of? ignition? and? during? slow combustion? at? temperatures? below? 500oC.?

Cool? Smoke : Smoke,? remote? from? the? scene? of? a? fire,? which? has? cooled? and? is drifting? at? low? levels.

Co-Ordinating? Dimension :
(ISO 1791)
A? dimension? of? co-ordinating? space,? which? defines? the relative positions? of? two? or? more? components? in? an? assembly,? according? to the? characteristics? of? the? components? which? are? relevant? to? the assembly.?

Cost - Effectiveness :
(Energy Charter
Treaty, 1994)
To? achieve? a? defined? objective? at? the? lowest? cost? or? to? achieve the? greatest? benefit? at? a? given? cost.?

Design? Fire :
(ISO/TR 10158)
A? fire? with? specified? exposure? data? intended? for? use? in? connection with? structural? fire? design? calculations.

A?? design? fire? ?may? either? be? representative? of? the? thermal exposure? described? by? the? standard? time-temperature? and? time-pressure? relationships? in? accordance? with? ISO 834,? or? some? non-standard? exposure? intended? to? simulate? particular? fire? exposure conditions.? ?

Dimensional? Co-Ordination :
(ISO 1791)??
A? convention? on? related? sizes? for? the? co-ordinating? dimensions? of building? components? and? the? buildings? incorporating? them,? for their? design,? manufacture,? assembly? and/or? installation.

Disabled? People :?

Those? people,? of? all? ages,? who? are? unable? to? perform, independently? and? without? aid,? basic? human? tasks? or? functions because? of? physical,? mental? or? psychological? impairment,? whether of? a? permanent? or? temporary? nature.

This? definition? is? derived? from / based? on? the? World? Health Organization's? definitions (1980)? of? 'impairment'? and? 'disability'? only.?

The? term? includes? ........?

  • wheelchair? users ;?
  • people? who? experience? difficulty? in? walking,? with? or? without?aid,? e.g.? stick,? crutch,? calliper? or walking? frame ;
  • the? elderly? ( people? over? the? age? of? 60? years ) ;
  • the? very? young? ( people? under? the? age? of? 5? years ) ;
  • pregnant? women ;?
  • people? who? suffer? from? arthritis ;
  • the? visually? impaired ;
  • the? hearing? impaired ;?

??????????????? and?

  • people? who? panic? in? a? fire? situation? or? other? emergency ;
  • people,? including? firefighters,? who? suffer? incapacitation? as? a result? of? exposure,? during? a? fire,? to? poisonous? or? toxic substances,? and/or? elevated? temperatures.?

Doorset :? ??????????????????????????????????????????

A? component? consisting? of? a? fixed? part? ( the? door? frame ) ,? one? or more? movable? parts? ( the? door? leaves ) ,? and? their? hardware,? the function? of? which? is? to? allow,? or? to? prevent,? access? and? egress.

A?? doorset?? may? also? include? a? door? saddle / sill / threshold.

Element? of? Construction :?
(ISO 1791) ?
A? functional? part? of? a? building,? constructed? from? building? materials and/or? building? components.?

Examples? are? foundation,? floor,? roof,? wall,? etc.

Energy? Cycle :
(Energy Charter Treaty, 1994)
The? entire? energy? chain,? including? activities? related? to? prospecting? for,? exploration,? production,? conversion,? storage,? transport, distribution? and? consumption? of? the? various? forms? of? energy,? and the? treatment? and? disposal? of? wastes,? as? well? as? the decommissioning,? cessation? or? closure? of? these? activities, minimizing? harmful? environmental? impacts.

Environmental? Impact :?
(Energy Charter Treaty, 1994)
Any? effect? caused? by? a? given? activity? on? the? environment, including? human? health? and? safety,? flora,? fauna,? soil,? air,? water, climate,? landscape? and? historical? monuments? or? other? physical structures? or? the? interactions? among? these? factors ;?? it? also? includes effects? on? cultural? heritage? or? socio-economic? conditions? resulting from? alterations? to? those? factors.?

Evacuate? a? Fire? Building : To? withdraw,? or? cause? to? withdraw,? all? users? from? a? fire? building, in? planned? and? orderly? phased? movements,? to? a? place? of? safety.?

Experimental? Fire :
(ISO/TR 10158)

A? full? or? reduced? scale? fire? with? specified? and? controlled characteristics.?

Fire? Compartment :? The? compartment? of? fire? origin.?

Fire? Defence? Plan : A? pre-determined? and? co-ordinated? use? of? available? human? and material? means? in? order? to? maintain? an? adequate? level? of? fire safety? and? protection? within? a? building? and,? in? the? event? of? an outbreak? of? fire,? to? ensure? that? it? is? brought? speedily? under? control? and? extinguished.

Fire? Defence? Manual :

The? elaboration,? usually? in? the? form? of? appropriate? drawings,? text, audio/visual? aids? and? product? information,? of? the? particular? fire safety? strategy? which? has? been? adopted? for? a? specific? building. Under? no? circumstances? should? a?? fire? defence? manual?? contain an? incomplete? strategy,? or? more? than? one? strategy.?

Fire? Draught : A? current? of? air? within? a? building,? moving? towards? a? fire, supplying? oxygen? for? combustion.?

Fire? Protection : The? use? of? building? design,? construction,? services,? systems,? personnel? and? equipment? in? order? to? control? and? extinguish ?fire, and? minimize? its? effects? on? people,? property? and? the? environment.?

Fire? Resistance :? The? inherent? capability? of? a? building? assembly,? or? an? element? of? construction,? to? resist? the? passage? of? heat,? smoke? and? flame during? a? fire.?

Fire? Resisting? Doorset / Shutter? Assembly :? A? doorset / shutter? assembly,? suitably? installed? or? mounted? on? site, the? function? of? which? is? to? resist? the? passage? of? heat,? smoke? and flame? during? a? fire.?

Fire? Safety? Design :? The? art? and? science? of? the? design ,? supervision? of? related construction / de-construction,? and? maintenance? of? fire? safety? and protection? in? a? sustainable? 'built? environment'.

Fire? Safety? Objectives : An? expression? of? the? fire? safety? design? intent? for? a? building,? in the? form? of? specific? subordinate? purposes,? towards? which? the?production? of? a? fire? defence? plan? is? directed.

Some?? fire? safety? objectives?? may? be? requirements? of? legislation.

Fire? Safety? Strategy :? A? coherent? and? purposeful? arrangement? of? fire? protection? and? fire prevention? measures? which? is? developed? in? order? to? attain specified? fire? safety? objectives.

Flashover : The? transition? from? a? localized? fire? to? a? fully? developed? fire within? a? building? compartment? or? space.

Fully? Developed? Fire : The? stage,? in? the? development? of? a? fire,? during? which? all available? fuel? substances? are? involved.

Human? Health : A? state? of? physical,? mental,? psychological,? social,? cultural? and economic? wellbeing.

Life? Cycle :?
(EN ISO 14040)
Consecutive? and? interlinked? stages ?of? a? product? (and/or? service)? system,? from? raw? material? acquisition? or? generation? of? natural resources? to? the? final? disposal.?

Life? Cycle? Assessment :
(EN ISO 14040)
Compilation? and? evaluation? of? the? inputs,? outputs? and? the? potential environmental? impacts? of? a? product? (and/or? service)? system throughout? its? life? cycle.?

Penetrating? Service : Any? building? service,? e.g.? cable,? conduit,? trunking,? pipe,? flue, duct or? shaft,? etc.,? which? penetrates? a? fire? resisting? building? assembly? or? element? of? construction.

Penetration? Sealing? Assembly :? An? assembly? consisting? of? one? or? more? penetrating? services? and their? support? construction,? fire? resisting? damper? assembly, penetration? barrier? and/or? fire? sealant,? etc.,? the? function? of? which is? to? restore? the? original? fire? resistance? capability? of? a? building assembly? or? an? element? of? construction.?

Performance :?
(EU Directive 89/106/EEC)
Performance? is? a? quantitative? expression ( value,? grade,? class? or level )? of? the? behaviour? of? a? works,? part? of? the? works? or? product, for? an? action? to ?which? it? is? subject? or? which? it? generates? under the? intended? service? conditions? ( for? the? works? or? part? of? the works )? or? intended? use? conditions? ( for? products ) .

Place? of? Relative? Safety : Any? location? beyond? the? buffer? zone? surrounding? a? fire compartment? in? a? building.?

Place? of? Safety :? Any? location? beyond? a? perimeter? which? is? 100?? metres? from the? fire? building? or? a? distance? of? 10? times? the? height? of? such building,? whichever? is? the? greater.?

Real? Fire :
(ISO/TR 10158)
A? fire? which? develops? in? a? building? and? which? is? influenced? by? such? factors? as? the? type? of? building? and? its? occupancy? ( numbers, abilities? and? activity ) ;??
the? combustible? content? ( the? fire? load ) ;
the? ventilation,? geometry? and? thermal? properties? of? the? fire compartment? or? space ;?? the? suppression? systems? in? the? building and? the? actions? of? the? fire? services.?

A?? real? fire?? is? a? complex? phenomenon.??? In? a? structural? fire design,? therefore,? idealized? versions? of? real? fires? are? employed.

Safety :?
(ISO/IEC Guides 2 & 51)
Freedom? from? unacceptable? risk? of? harm.?

???????????????? ?????????
Shutter? Assembly :? An? assembly? consisting? of? one? movable? part? ( a? curtain? of? horizontal? interlocking? steel? slats ) ,? and? its? hardware? ( a? suspension? system,? guide? rails,? etc. ) ,? the? function? of? which? is? to allow,? or? to? prevent,? access? and? egress.?

Size :? The? magnitude? of? a? dimension? in? terms? of? a? defined? S.I.? unit? of measure,? i.e.? the? metre.?

Smoke : The? visible? suspension? of? solid? and/or? liquid ?particles? in? gases? resulting? from? fire? or? pyrolysis.?

Smoke? Resistance : The? inherent? capability? of? a? building? assembly? to? resist? the passage? of? smoke? during? a? fire.?

Sterile? Area? ( Fire ) : A? building? space ?of? sufficient? extent,? or? a? compartment,? which? is? designed? to? retain? an? exceptionally? low? level? of? fire? risk? and hazard? during? a? fire?? -?? in? order? to? resist? and? control? the? advance of? heat,? smoke? and? flame? in? that? building.

Examples? where?? sterile? areas? ( fire )?? might? be? useful? ........

  • in? the? main? entrance? lobby / space? of? a? building ;
  • to? create? a? fire? separation? between? different? spaces? in? an? open plan? building,? or? to? sub-divide? a? very? large? open? space.?

Structural? Reliability :
(ISO 2394)

The? ability? of? a? structural? system? to? fulfil? its? design? purpose,? for some? specified? time,? under? the? actual? environmental? conditions encountered? in? a? building.

In? structural? fire? design,? the? concern? must? be? that? the? structure will? fulfil? its? purpose,? both? during? the? fire?? -?? and? for? a? minimum period? afterwards? during? the? 'cooling? phase'.?

Tolerance : The? difference? between? permissible? limits? of? size? or? between permissible? limits? of? position.

Tolerance?? is? an? absolute? value,? without? sign.

Wellbeing :? A? general? feeling? of? health? and? happiness.?

Work? Size : The? size,? given? with? its? permissible? deviations,? specified? for manufacturing? a? component? the? actual? size? of? which? would? lie within? these? deviations,? under? reference? conditions.?


? ??????????????????????????????????????

Appendix? II - Fire Resistance Performance in Buildings

Reference? Documentation


International? Standards

ISO? 2394 : 1998?

General? principles? on? reliability? for? structures?

ISO? 5725 : 1986?

Precision? of? test? methods? -? Determination? of? repeatability ?and? reproducibility? for? a? standard? test? method? by? inter-laboratory? tests.?

ISO? 6707-1 : 1989?

Building? and? civil? engineering? -? Vocabulary.??? Part? 1 : General? terms.?

ISO? 6707-2 : 1993?

Building? and? civil? engineering? -? Vocabulary.??? Part? 2 : Contract? terms.?

ISO/TR? 10158 : 1991?

Principles? and? rationale? underlying? calculation? methods? in? relation? to? fire? resistance? of? structural? elements.?

EN ISO? 14040 : 1997?

Environmental? management? -? Life? cycle? assessment? -? Principles? and? framework?

International? Treaties? and? Agreements

Energy? Charter? Treaty?

Lisbon,? Portugal ;?? December,? 1994.???? Official? Journal? of? the? European? Communities.????? OJ? L? 380 .? Office? for? Official? Publications? of? the? European? Communities.????? Luxembourg.????? 1994.?

Rio? Declaration? on? Environment? and? Development?? -?? Agenda? 21?

Adopted? on? 14th. June? 1992,? at? the? 19th.? plenary? meeting? of? the? United? Nations? Conference? on? Environment? and? Development.????? Rio de Janeiro,? Brazil.????? 3rd.- 14th. June,? 1992.?

UNFCCC? -? The? Kyoto? Protocol : 1997?

Agreed? at? the? 3rd. meeting? of? the? Conference? of? the? Parties? (COP 3)? to? the? United? Nations? Framework? Convention ?on? Climate? Change.????? Kyoto,? Japan.????? December,? 1997.????? This? Protocol? sets? legally? binding? targets? for? developed? countries? to? limit? emissions? of? an? aggregate? of? six? more? greenhouse? gases :?? CO2 ,? CH4 ,? N2O,? PFC's ,? HFC's ,? and? SF6 .?

Publications? and? Reports

Agenda? 21? on? Sustainable? Construction?? -?? CIB? Publication? 237

International? Council? for? Research? and? Innovation? in? Building? and? Construction? ( CIB ) .????? Publication? No. 237.????? The? Netherlands.????? July,? 1999.?

An? Investigation? of? Fire? Door? Closer? Forces

Read,? R.E.H.? and?? Shipp,? M.P.????? Building? Research? Establishment? Report.????? HMSO,? London,? England.????? 1979.?

European? Charter? on? Sustainable? Design? &? Construction

Walsh,? C.J. -? Sustainable? Design? International.????? In? co-operation? with? the? Commission? of? the? European? Union,?? and? the? International? Council? for? Research? and? Innovation? in? Building? and? Construction ?( CIB ) .????? Adopted? in? Dublin,? Ireland,? on? 6th November? 1998.?

Sustainable? Development? and? the? Future? of? Construction?? -?? CIB? Report? 225

International? Council? for? Building? Research,? Studies? and? Documentation? ( CIB ).? Report No. 225.???? CIB? Working? Commission? 82? :? Futures? Studies? in? Construction.????? The? Netherlands.????? May,? 1998.?

Visibility? Through? Fire? Smoke? -? Part? 5 :?? Allowable? Smoke? Densities? for? Escape? from? Fire?

Tadahisa,? Jin.????? Report? of? Fire? Institute? of? Japan,? No. 42.????? 1976.?

Rational  Fire  Safety  Engineering  Approach  to  Fire  Resistance  in  Buildings  -  CIB Report  269

International? Council? for? Research? and? Innovation? in? Building? and? Construction? ( CIB ) .????? Report? No. 269.???? CIB? Working? Commission? 14? :? Fire.???? The? Netherlands.????? October,? 2001.?




home | sustainability | fire | architecture | copyright | synchronicity
search this site | back to top | update | contact | technical blog

© Sustainable Design International Limited 1995-2017
all rights reserved - tutti i diritti riservati